Eine Einstellung zur Arbeit

Labour in a Single Shot


Statistical Data

Google entries for Boston 507,000,000
Google entries per inhabitant (city) 811.08

Founding 1630

Population (2012)
Metro 4.59 million

Population History (city)
1960 697,197
1970 641,071
1980 562,994
1990 574,283
2000 589,141
2010 617,594
2012 625,087

89.63 sq mi (232.14 km2)
Land 48.43 sq mi (125.43 km2)
Metropolitan area 4,511 sq mi (11,683 km2)

Density (inhabitants / sq mi / km2)
City 12,907/ sq mi (4,983.5/ km2)

Average high temperature
59.18° F (15.1° C)
Average low temperature 43.70° F (6.50° C)
Rainfall / year 41.5 inches (1054.3 mm)
Days of rain / year 98.7

Ethnic composition (2010)
White (non-Hispanic)
Of Irish descent
Of Italian descent 8.3%
Black or African-American 24.4%
Hispanic or Latino 17.5%
Asian 8.9%
Two or more races 3.9%
Native American 0.4%

GDP (metropolitan area, 2012) 320.7 billion U.S. dollars [1]
GDP per capita (metropolitan area, 2012) 69,308 U.S. dollars [1]
Share of the national GDP 2.04% [2]
Percentage of US population 47% [2]
[1] http://www.brookings.edu/research/interactives/global-metro-monitor-3
[2] http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Multimedia/Interactives/2013/tentraits/Boston.pdf

Since 2002, the city of Boston has been ranked number 1 in the world in science and technology and number 4 in patent applications. The city’s specialization in sectors such as computers and electronics, business services, chemicals, and royalties enabled it to increase its exports by 12 percent between 2009 and 2010 and to climb from 83rd to 25th place in the ranking of top exporting U.S. cities. Since 2009, Boston’s economy has grown at a rate of 4.8 percent, the highest among all major U.S. metropolitan areas. Though approximately 10 percent of the population of Massachusetts lives in Boston, the city is home to 18 percent of all jobs in the state. In 2011, Boston was ranked the most innovative city in the world, as the U.S. city with the best Internet connectivity, and as the third best U.S. city in terms of quality of life, after Honolulu and San Francisco.

Largest employers divided by field (range, city, 2011)
Total jobs
Finance and Insurance 79,513
Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services 77,639
Government 77,468
Accommodation and Food Services 53,702
Colleges and Universities 46,705
Retail Trade 31,092
compared to

Average hourly rates for selected occupations in USD (2012)
Total, all occupations
Lawyers 65.63
General and operations managers 63.26
Management analysts 50.48
Software developers, applications 49.61
Registered nurses 40.88
Construction laborers 24.15
Production laborers 18.94
Office clerks, general 16.57
Waiters and waitresses 13.17
Retail salespersons 12.79
Cashiers 10.36
Cooks, fast food 10.17

Unemployment rate in percent (July 2013)
Boston (metropolitan area)
Boston (city) 7.6
US 7.7

Foreclosures on single-family homes in Greater Boston
2005 180
2007 2,061
2008 3,055
2010 3,015
2011 2,146

Minimum Wage
Minimum wage (2013) $8 [1]
Annual salary based on minimum wage $16,640 [1]
Workers at or below minimum wage (Mass. 2012) 62,000 [2]
Thereof below minimum wage 45,000 [2]
[1] http://www.wbur.org/2013/03/20/two-bed-apartment-minimum-wage
[2] http://www.bls.gov/ro1/minwage.htm

Low-wage jobs are fast replacing middle-class ones in the U.S. economy. Sixty percent of the jobs lost in the last recession were middle-income, while 59 percent of the new positions during the past two years of recovery were in low-wage industries that continue to expand such as retail, food services, cleaning and health-care support. By 2020, 48 percent of jobs will be in those service sectors.

Declining value of the minimum wage since 1968 25%
The minimum wage would need to rise compared to
Inflation since 1968 to
wages of the 90th percentile since 1979 to $13.67
Worker productivity since 1979 to $19.77

Income Inequality
the top 5% of earners
accounted for 25% of total annual income
the bottom 20% earned 2,2% of the total annual income
more than one-third of families of color had annual incomes of less than $ 25,000
10% of families of color had incomes of less than $ 10,000 per year
almost half of the white families had annual incomes of $ 100,000 or more
10% of white families had incomes of less than 25,000 per year

Boston’s recent economic dynamism reflects an increase in wealthy, well-educated residents rather than a decline in poverty, with widening inequality and stark racial/ethnic disparities.

Union Membership (Massachusetts, 2012)
Percentage of all workers 14.4%

Low-wage employment
How high does the hourly rate for low-wage workers need to be, based on different standards (2012, calculated for a family of 4 with two adults working full-time)

Federal Poverty Level $10.6
Social Inclusion $14.94
(Defined as two-thirds of the median hourly wage)
Family Economic Self-Sufficiency Standard
$ 16.15
(Defined as the income required to meet basic needs without public subsidies)

Low-wage earners in Boston
(Metropolitan area, according to the Family Economic Self-Sufficiency Standard, 2005-2009)
Percentage of all workers 41%
In the private sector
In the public sector 73,591
Self-employed 77,767

Distribution of low-wage earners by industry
Accommodation & Food services
Retail Trade 62%
Educational Services 43%
Manufacturing 28%
Construction 37%
Art, Entertainment & Recreation 71%
Finance & Insurance 19%
Public Administration 21%

BUDGET SEQUESTRATION (Sequestration = automatic spending cuts
in particular categories of federal outlays according to the Budget Control Act of 2011
In effect since March 2013 [1]
Total (US)
$1.1 trillion until 2021 [1]
Total US 2013 (fiscal year to Sept. 30, 2013) $ 85 billion [2]
[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Budget_sequestration_in_2013
[2] http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/03/01/obama-sequester-order_n_2793653.html

We’re not only the Bay State, we’re the Brain State, and that did not happen by chance,” (Senator Ed) Markey said in an interview. “It’s in large part due to federal funding that supports our leading researchers and scientists and innovative bio-tech companies, and federal funding that supports our education programs, and the billions of dollars our hospitals receive to train the next generation of doctors. The massive arbitrary cuts threaten Massachusetts’ role as the nation’s high tech, bio-tech, clean tech hub.

Impact of sequestration on teachers and schools in Massachusetts 2013
Decrease in funding for primary and secondary education
13.9 million Jobs at risk among teachers and aides 190
Decrease in funding for education for children with disabilities $13.4 million
Jobs at risk among staff for education for children with disabilities 160

Impact of sequestration on federal housing assistance and community development programs in Massachusetts 3013 for low-income households in 2013
Funding reduction for housing and community development programs
approx. 5% (- $5,745,593)
Funding reduction for Housing Choice Vouchers approx. 5% (- 3.847 affected families)
Funding reduction for public housing minus approx. 5% (- $9,551,642)
Funding reduction for homeless assistance approx. 5% (- $3,584,945)
Funding reduction for HIV / AIDS housing  approx. 5% (- $206,084)

Impact of sequestration on the HomeBASE-program, the Metropolitan Boston Housing Partnership (MBHP)
Yearly spending budget of HomeBASE
$19 million
Number of families in the program in Boston (city) 1,030 (Massachusetts 5,000 families)
Annual income average of participating families $10,140
Annual income necessary to afford a two-bedroom apartment at fair market rent in Boston $49,512
Rental price higher than the income 85% of families
more than half of the families will lose rental assistance on or before December 2013
all families will lose rental assistance on or before June 2014

There are a huge number of families, about 200,000 in Massachusetts, with income so low they qualify for emergency assistance. Families with income of $18,000 for a family of three qualify for emergency assistance. [...] 90,000 families have housing vouchers, either section 8 or Massachusetts Rental Voucher Program (5900 families). Housing is very expensive in Massachusetts. Apartment rent would require 85% of income in greater Boston for a family at the EA limit, and 65% of income outside greater Boston. [...] The number of homeless families in motels has nearly tripled in the last four years, increasing from 600 to nearly 1700 in December 2012.

Federal Poverty Line (FPL, 2013)

Single Person $ 11,490.00/annually
Family of 4 $ 23,550/annually

Bostonians below the poverty line (2005-2005)
All residents
Families with children 23%
All children 28%
Latino children 40%
African American children 35%
Asian children 31%
White children 9.5%

Households with income below the poverty line (city, 2010) 21.2%
Children below the poverty line (city, 2010) 30.5%

Prices in Euro
12 eggs € 2.91
1 kg (2 lb.) tomatoes € 1.86
bread for 2 people for 1 day € 2.13
0.5 l (16 oz.) beer in the supermarket € 1.82
1 liter (1 qt.) of whole fat milk € 0.72
hourly rate for cleaning help € 35
monthly rent for a 85 m2 (900 sqft) apartment
in an expensive area of the city
€ 1,956
1 liter (1/4 gallon) of gas € 1.90
monthly ticket public transport € 54

Monthly cost of living for a family of 4 (metropolitan area, in US-dollar 2013)
Food $754
Child care $1,505
Transportation $607
Health care $1,585
Other $563
Taxes $751
Monthly total $7,209
Annual total

It takes more income for a family to be self-sufficient in Massachusetts than almost anywhere else. Factoring in the costs of day care, housing, utilities, and food, the Crittenton Women’s Union estimates that a mother with two young children would need $65,880 to meet basic expenses without relying on any state subsidies. That’s an eye-popping $31.55 an hour.

Average asking rent for new rentals for apartments (2 bedrooms) (12 / 2011) in different neighborhoods
East Boston
Cambridge $2,462
Seaport $3,144
Average $2,126

Rent prices in Greater Boston (2010)
More than 50% of renters spend more than 30% of their income on rent
25% of renters spend more than 50% of their income on rent

Public transportation, Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA)

The MBTA is the nation's 5th largest mass transit system and serves a population of 4.8 million. It maintains 13 commuter rail routes, 3 subway lines, 5 light rail routes, 4 trackless trolley lines, and 183 bus routes, two of which are Bus Rapid Transit lines. [1]
Commuters served in 2012
404,788,328 [2]
Commuters on a typical day 1,311,149 [2]
[1] http://www.mbta.com/about_the_mbta/history/default.asp?id=970
[2] http://www.mbta.com/uploadedfiles/About_the_T/Financials/14-18%20Final%20CIP.pdf

Modal split (2009)
Private motor vehicle 45%
Public transport 35%
Walking 14%
Cycling 2%

Boston reduces the requirements for developers to create parking spaces when building: "The facts are that the young people who are the surge of the population growth in the city have fewer cars — interestingly, fewer licenses as well. And they care deeply about their carbon footprint. And so a lot of them instinctively are doing something that people in my generation didn’t do, and that is they don’t have a car and they feel no need for a car. Or they rent a car when they need it, and they take public transportation, walk or bike to work.“ (Peter Meade, Director, Boston Redevelopment Authority)



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Philippe Leonard | TOM 2.0. | Boston 2013
>Theodore Kennedy
Theodore Kennedy | The Making of Manhattans | Boston 2013
>Victoria Quamme
Victoria Quamme | Driver | Boston 2013
>Derek Johnson
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>Stephanie Rabins
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>Lea Khayata, Elettra Fiumi
Lea Khayata, Elettra Fiumi | The Harpist | Boston 2013
>Nicole Teeny
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>Alex Auriema
Alex Auriema | Graveyard | Boston 2013
>Sooyoung Kwon
Sooyoung Kwon | MIT Custodial Work | Boston 2013
>Philip Cartelli
Philip Cartelli | The Boston Traffic Police | Boston 2013
>Beyza Boyacioglu
Beyza Boyacioglu | The Subway Musician | Boston 2013
>Paul Foley
Paul Foley | Handout | Boston 2013
>Lea Khayata, Elletra Fiumi
Lea Khayata, Elletra Fiumi | The Office | Boston 2013
>Yae Jin Shin
Yae Jin Shin | Apple Picking | Boston 2013
>Leslie to
Leslie to | Au Revoir | Boston 2013
>Manuel Molina Martagon
Manuel Molina Martagon | The Conductor | Boston 2013
>Olga Pikalova
Olga Pikalova | The Sho Shiner | Boston 2013
>Joana Pimenta, Philip Cartelli
Joana Pimenta, Philip Cartelli | The Absence of Work | Boston 2013
>Harsha Menon
Harsha Menon | Bhagavati | Boston 2013
>Cozette Russell
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>Aily Nash
Aily Nash | Data Visualization | Boston 2013
>Darcie DeAngelo
Darcie DeAngelo | Animal Cop | Boston 2013
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Alan Yeung | Alley | Boston 2013
>Adrian Randall
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>Adam Sekuler
Adam Sekuler | The Docking Ferry | Boston 2013
>Beyza Boyacioglu
Beyza Boyacioglu | Honey | Boston 2013
>Sarah Childress
Sarah Childress | Phil Gray's Blue Dragon Mussel Wagon, Boston 2013
>Stephanie Rabins
Stephanie Rabins | Construction | Boston 2013
>Philippe Leonhard
Philippe Leonhard | Officer! | Boston 2013
>Paul Foley
Paul Foley | Hammered | Boston 2013
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Paul Foley | Crane Shot | Boston 2013
>Olga Pikalova
Olga Pikalova | Workers Leaving the Construction Site by North Station | Boston 2013
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Olga Pikalova | The Watchmaker | Boston 2013
>Nicole Teeny
Nicole Teeny | The Origamist | Boston 2013
>Manuel Molina Martagon
Manuel Molina Martagon | Costume People | Boston 2013
>Derek Johnson
Derek Johnson | Scalpers | Boston 2013
>Darci DeAngelo
Darci DeAngelo | Firefighters | Boston 2013
>Darci DeAngelo
Darci DeAngelo | Breakdancer | Boston 2013
>Cozette Russel
Cozette Russel | Workers Leaving the Shipyard | Boston 2013
>Adam Sekuler
Adam Sekuler | Motor room Check Ferry | Boston 2013